Most job descriptions emphasize experience, skills and academics.
Most people who get promoted internally into these same spots don’t have the experience, skills and academics listed as required for someone hired from the outside.
What they have is something far better – an established cultural fit and a track record of performance that indicates they can take on a bigger role in the company. Not surprising, by assessing cultural fit and performance rather than skills and experience, the probability of their success is more predictable, too.
There is no reason the same cultural and performance-based process used for promoting people internally can’t be applied for external hires.
It can, by defining the cultural and performance expectations of the role before defining the necessary experience and skills.